Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is due to inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle (myocardium) due to the obstruction in the coronary artery (artery that supplies blood to the heart muscle). This obstruction in arteries is due to atherosclerosis.

CAUSES:

  • Atherosclerosis in coronary artery.
  • High calcium intake.
  • Age.
  • More commonly seen in males.
  • Family history of atherosclerosis.
  • Sedentary life.
  • Obesity.
  • Eating habits- junk food, high fat diet.
  • Stress.
  • Smoking.
  • High levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the blood.
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure).
  • Diabetes.
  • Hypercholesterolemia.
  • SIGN AND SYMPTOMS:
  • Angina pectoris.
  • Tight pressing in chest
  • Severe pain across the chest.
  • Pain after exertion or hard work.
  • Myocardial infarction.
  • Reduced functional capacity of heart
  • Breathlessness on exertion.
  • Pain in chest.
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Accumulation of fluid in lungs and other parts of the body.
  • Difficulty in breathing on slightest exertion
  • Pain in chest on exertion.

DIETARY MANAGEMENT:

  • Cut down salt (common table salt) intake in your diet to avoid hypertension. Intake should not exceed more then 2 to
  • 2.5 gm a day.
  • Avoid foods rich in cholesterol: ground nut oil, ghee, butter, whole milk, eggs, lard (fats derived from pig meat), tallow (fats derived from goat or sheep mutton), oily fish, meats and red meat – all non-vegetarian food contain cholesterol in varied amount.
  • Avoid non-vegetarian food especially red meat.
  • Increase intake of foods that contain PUFA`s (poly unsaturated fatty acids): flax / linseed oil is the richest source of PUFA`s. Other oils that contain PUFA`s are safflower oil, soybean oil, sesame oil, mustard oil and olive oil. As all oils are high in fats, its consumption should be limited. The intake of oils should not exceed 20gms a day.
  • Sesame oil and almond oil hinders the absorption of LDL (low-density lipoproteins), so it is advisable to use / replace other cooking oils by sesame oil.
  • Increase your intake of water.
  • Take high fiber diet – whole grains, bran, oat, green leafy vegetables, peas, beans, potatoes, raw vegetables, salads, dried fruits and fresh fruits.
  • Cut down the intake of sugar and other sweeteners.
  • Avoid fat-rich portions of flesh foods. Instead have lean meat.
  • Avoid fat-rich desserts and fried snacks like cakes, pastries, puddings etc
  • Instead of frying food boil, steam, grill or roast food.
  • Avoid coffee and caffeinated drinks, junk food – pizza, burgers etc.
  • Consume food rich in magnesium:
  • – Nuts and sea food, green leafy vegetables, sea plants like Japanese sea plants, whole grains Peas, lotus stem, pulses, legumes and oil seeds
  • Increase intake of vitamin C, it maintains the elasticity and integrity of the artery walls.
  • Citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables.
  • Eat vegetables- cabbage, broccoli, tubers- potatoes and sweet potatoes.
  • Reduce calcium intake (reduce but do not completely avoid calcium as it is needed for maintenance of our body):-
  • milk and sea food, nuts, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, peas, lotus stem, pulses, legumes and oil seeds
  • Should avoid custard apple and banana as they are high in calcium.